Time-related predator/prey interactions between birds and fish in a northern Swedish river
Seasonal and diel activity patterns of mergansers, gulls, and terns along a river in northern Sweden were documented, as were those of their fish prey. The seasonal and diel activity patterns of goosandersMergus merganser and gulls (Larus canus, L. argentatus, andL. fuscus) were closely related to that of the river lampreyLampetra fluviatilis. During the peak spawning of the river lamprey, birds showed a nocturnal peak in fishing activity. During the summer solstice, birds were active for 24 h. The activity patterns of red-breasted merganserMergus serrator, ternsSterna spp., and three-spined sticklebacksGasterosteus aculeatus were also similar. Activity pattern of the prey apparently influenced breeding time, diel activity and foraging area of the twoMergus species. Social relations between gulls probably corrdinated their peak in fishing, which coincided with the time lampreys were most efficiently exploited.
- 1 - sciences appliquees, technologies et medecines
- 2 - sciences biologiques et medicales
- 3 - sciences biologiques fondamentales et appliquees. psychologie
- 1 - Life Sciences ; 2 - Agricultural and Biological Sciences ; 3 - Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics