Biological control of oliver scale, Parlatoria oleae ( Colvée ), in a deciduous fruit Orchard in California
Conclusions: Data obtained during the years 1960–1966 show conclusively that the olive scale parasites,Aphytis maculicornis andCoccophagoides utilis, when well-established, are capable of fully effective control of their host on a commerciallty-grown deciduous fruit host.A. maculicornis alone, prior to the establishment ofC. utilis, failed to reduce or maintain control of scale densities. Subsequent to the colonization and establishement ofC. utilis in 1962 and its assumption of a contributing role as an agent of biological control of oliver scale, both species of parasites were able to reduce the host below economic levels within a year. Scale densities have decreased continually since 1963. Continuation of satisfactory biological control is indicated by the low densities of scales now maintained by its parasites. Judicious use of chemical treatments, both in selection and in timing of application, to control other insect and mit problems will ensure the continuing biological control of oliove scale in this deciduous orchard.
- 1 - sciences appliquees, technologies et medecines
- 2 - sciences biologiques et medicales
- 3 - sciences biologiques fondamentales et appliquees. psychologie
- 1 - Life Sciences ; 2 - Agricultural and Biological Sciences ; 3 - Plant Science
- 1 - Life Sciences ; 2 - Agricultural and Biological Sciences ; 3 - General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
- 1 - Life Sciences ; 2 - Agricultural and Biological Sciences ; 3 - Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics