The possible role of entomophagous insects in the genetic control of the codling moth, with special reference to Trichogramma
The release of sterilized codling moth enriches the animal community of the orchard. This enrichment leads to new situations also for the entomophagous species and may provide special possibilities in the use of entomophaga. Codling moth control by the sterility principle may provide certain entomophagous species with an extra food source, namely, the released moth and, possibly more important, the sterile eggs laid by these moths. This extra food may be detrimental to the sterility control because of certain predators of the adult codling moths (e.g.Vespula maculata L., other predatory insects and entomophagous birds). On the other hand, the extra food source may be advantageous. For example, sterilized moths, at the rate of release currently used in control programs, should deposit up to 5 to 10 million eggs per hectare per season. These eggs may produce 2,5 to 5 million adultTrichogramma parasites, assuming 2Trichogramma per egg and 75 % parasite mortality. Both inviable eggs of sterilized moths and gamma sterilized eggs proved to be reasonably satisfactory food for the larvae ofTrichogramma evanescens Westw. This parasite also attacked and developed in normal eggs ofAdoxophyes reticulana.Hbn. These results suggest that release of limited numbers ofTrichogramma parasites could be combined with release of sterile codling moths to provide improved control of this pest and to aid in the biological suppression of other injurious tortricids.
- 1 - sciences appliquees, technologies et medecines
- 2 - sciences biologiques et medicales
- 3 - sciences biologiques fondamentales et appliquees. psychologie
- 1 - Life Sciences ; 2 - Agricultural and Biological Sciences ; 3 - Plant Science
- 1 - Life Sciences ; 2 - Agricultural and Biological Sciences ; 3 - General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
- 1 - Life Sciences ; 2 - Agricultural and Biological Sciences ; 3 - Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics