Metal toxicity to embryos and larvae of eight species of freshwater fish—II: Copper
- 1) Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, 55804, Duluth, Minn.
Fish larvae and early juveniles of all species tested (brook trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, lake trout, northern pike, white sucker, herring, and smallmouth bass) were more sensitive to copper than the embryos. Embryo survival was affected only at the higher concentrations tested, for all species except the rainbow trout. The concentrations of copper that caused significant effects on the larval standing crop were similar for all species (31.7–43.5 ug Cu/1) except the northern pike, which seemed to be considerably more resistant (104.1 ?g Cu/1). Copper concentrations shown to have no significant effects on the early developmental stages of these species are considered close estimates of the copper concentrations that would have no measurable adverse effects during a complete life cycle toxicity test under similar test conditions.
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