Long term study on the influence of eutrophication, restoration and biomanipulation on the structure and development of phytoplankton communities in Feldberger Haussee (Baltic Lake District, Germany)
Feldberger Haussee provides a classic example of eutrophication history of hardwater lakes in the Baltic Lake District (Germany) and of changes in their algal flora during the 20th century. The lake originally was regarded as slightly eutrophic. A process of drastic eutrophication from the 1950s until the end of the 1970s caused mass developments of blue-green and green algae. A restoration program was started in the 1980s to improve the water quality of the lake using both diversion of sewage outside the catchment area, and biomanipulation by altering the fish community. This restoration program led to positive changes in the lake ecosystem. Direct effects of biomanipulation resulted in an increase of herbivorous zooplankton, a decrease of phytoplankton biomass, and an increase of water transparency. The recovery of Feldberger Haussee also may have been indirectly enhanced by an increase in nutrient sedimentation as a consequence of intensified calcite precipitation, decrease in phosphorus remobilization due to a pH-decrease, increased NIP-ratio, and recolonization of the littoral zone by macrophytes. This paper concentrates on the long term development of the phytoplankton community as a response to changes in the food web structure as well as to alterations in the chemical environment of the algae. Both are reflected in four major stages passed by the algal assemblage between 1980 and 1994: (1) From 1980-summer 1985 dense green algal populations were found indicating similar conditions as in the 1970s during the period of maximum eutrophication. (2) A diverse phytoplankton community during summer 1985–1989 showed the first effects of a recovery. (3) From 1990–1992 the phytoplankton was characterized by ungrazeable filamentous blue-green algae first of all as a response to increased herbivory of zooplankton on edible species and to increasing N/P-ratios. (4) Finally, the algal species diversity increased in 1993 and 1994 whereas the phytoplankton biomass decreased showing the success of the combined restoration measures.
- 1 - sciences appliquees, technologies et medecines
- 2 - sciences biologiques et medicales
- 3 - sciences biologiques fondamentales et appliquees. psychologie
- 4 - ecologie animale, vegetale et microbienne