Active metabolism in larval and juvenile fish: ontogenetic changes, effect of water temperature and fasting
- oxygen consumption
- ammonia excretion
- fish swimming
- Coregonus sp.
- Salmo sp.
- fish bioenergetics
Oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and fish swimming speed were measured in fish induced to swim by optomotor reaction in a circular metabolism chamber. The relationship between the swimming speed and fish metabolism described by exponential equations allowed the extrapolation to the standard metabolism, i.e. at zero swimming speed. The partitioning of the catabolised protein in the energy supply was estimated based on AQ (volume of ammonia/ volume of oxygen) values. Weight specific standard metabolism, as expressed by the ammonia excretion rate, decreased by one order of magnitude in coregonids as the fish grew from 20 to 780 mg body weight. The slope of the relationship between oxygen uptake and swimming speed decreased in coregonid ontogenesis. In salmon, after 12 days of fasting 28% of energy used was derived from protein, whilst coregonid juveniles utilized mostly lipid. Active swimming in fasted juveniles of coregonid, as well as in salmon, led to the accelerated utilization of protein as a source of energy, based on AQ coefficients. In juveniles acclimated to a range of water temperatures from 14 to 26°C, the changes in standard or active metabolic rate (expressed as oxygen uptake or ammonia excretion) were described by Q10 coefficients. They were generally higher for the ammonia excretion rate than for the oxygen uptake rate and for active metabolism than for standard metabolism. Utilization of protein as energy for swimming differed significantly between the species, being in general one order of magnitude higher in coregonids than in salmon. The use of protein for swimming activity tended to decrease during coregonid ontogenesis.
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