Nom du corpus

Corpus Systématique Animale

Titre du document

The three-dimensional structure of fish schools

Lien vers le document
Éditeur
Springer (journals)
Langue(s) du document
Anglais
Type de document
Research-article
Nom du fichier dans la ressource
Poissons_v2b_000447
Auteur(s)
  • Brian L. Partridge 1
  • Tony Pitcher 2
  • J. Michael Cullen 3
  • John Wilson 2
Affiliation(s)
  • 1) Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, England
  • 2) School of Biological and Environmental Studies, New University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland
  • 3) Department of Zoology, University of Monash, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Résumé

1. Methods for producing and analyzing long-term three-dimensional records of the positions of individuals within fish schools are described. Detailed analysis of internal structure and overall shapes of schools of three species which school to varying degrees are reported: Data from cod (Gadus morhua), a weak facultative schooler, saithe (Pollachius virens), a strong facultative schooler, and herring (Clupea harengus), an obligate schooler, are presented. 2. Fish do not position themselves at random within schools (Figs. 1 and 2). This is shown to result from the maintenance of minimum approach distances between fish (Fig. 3). Comparison of the frequency of neighbors at different distances with that expected at random (Fig. 3), however, demonstrates that fish space themselves more regularly than one would expect if the structure resulted wholly from minimum approach distances. 3. Herring and saithe are shown to swim at nearly but not exactly the same depth as their neighbors (Fig. 5). Neighbors are more-or-less equally common in all directions (bearings) around fish, although herring show some tendency toward taking up positions at 45° and 135°, the positions expected if school structure were a cubic lattice. School structure is present in a statistical sense only. 4. Herring are shown to maintain proportionately larger interfish distances than do saithe or cod (Fig. 7). These results are discussed in terms of the body structure of the three species and the antipredator function of schooling. Shape of cod schools and, to a lesser degree, saithe schools, is shown to be highly variable. Herring schools, however, appear fairly constant in their external shape (Fig. 10). 5. Factors affecting the structure of schools of saithe are studied. Increasing the number of fish in the school or the speed at which it is swimming results in smaller interfish distances (Figs. 8 and 9).

Catégories Science-Metrix
  • 1 - health sciences
  • 2 - psychology & cognitive sciences
  • 3 - behavioral science & comparative psychology
Catégories INIST
  • 1 - sciences appliquees, technologies et medecines
  • 2 - sciences biologiques et medicales
  • 3 - sciences biologiques fondamentales et appliquees. psychologie
  • 4 - ecologie animale, vegetale et microbienne
Catégories Scopus
  • 1 - Life Sciences ; 2 - Agricultural and Biological Sciences ; 3 - Animal Science and Zoology
  • 1 - Life Sciences ; 2 - Agricultural and Biological Sciences ; 3 - Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Catégories WoS
  • 1 - science ; 2 - zoology
  • 1 - science ; 2 - ecology
  • 1 - science ; 2 - behavioral sciences
Identifiant ISTEX
248A25B7DEFD1582B9526744D3F43D7B1B665C39
Revue

Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

Année de publication
1980
Présence de XML structuré
Non
Version PDF
1.3
Score qualité du texte
10
Sous-corpus
  • Poissons
Type de publication
Journal
ark:/67375/1BB-404PP0FL-6
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