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Corpus Systématique Animale

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Chromosome banding in amphibia

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  • M. Schmid 1
  • J. Olert 1
  • Christine Klett 1
  • 1) Abteilung Humangenetik, University of Ulm, P.O. Box 4066, 7900, Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany

The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin on the chromosomes of Triturus a. alpestris, T. v. vulgaris and T. h. helveticus (Amphibia, Urodela) was investigated. Sex-specific chromosomes were determined in the karyotypes of T. a. alpestris (chromosomes 4) and T. v. vulgaris (chromosomes 5). The male animals have one heteromorphic chromosome pair, of which only one homologue displays heterochromatic telomeres in the long arms; the telomeres of the other homologue are euchromatic. This chromosome pair is always homomorphic and without telomeric heterochromatin in the female animals. There is a highly reduced crossing-over frequency between the heteromorphic chromosome arms in the male meiosis of T. a. alpestris; in T. v. vulgaris no crossing-over at all occurs between the heteromorphic chromosome arms. No heteromorphisms between the homologues exist on the corresponding lampbrush chromosomes of the female meiosis. In T. h. helveticus no sex-specific heteromorphism of the constitutive heterochromatin could be determined. The male animals of this species, however, already possess a chromosome pair with a greatly reduced frequency of chiasma-formation in the long arms. The C-band patterns and the pairing configurations of the sex-specific chromosomes in the male meiosis indicate an XX/XY-type of sex-determination for the three species. A revision of the literature about experimental interspecies hybridizations, gonadic structure of haploid and polyploid animals, and sex-linked genes yielded further evidence in favor of male heterogamety. The results moreover suggest that the heterochromatinization of the Y-chromosome was the primary step in the evolution of the sex chromosomes.

Catégories Science-Metrix
  • 1 - health sciences
  • 2 - biomedical research
  • 3 - developmental biology
Catégories INIST
  • 1 - sciences appliquees, technologies et medecines
  • 2 - sciences biologiques et medicales
  • 3 - sciences biologiques fondamentales et appliquees. psychologie
  • 4 - invertebres
Catégories Scopus
  • 1 - Health Sciences ; 2 - Medicine ; 3 - Genetics(clinical)
  • 1 - Life Sciences ; 2 - Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology ; 3 - Genetics
Catégories WoS
  • 1 - science ; 2 - genetics & heredity
  • 1 - science ; 2 - biochemistry & molecular biology
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  • Batraciens
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